Routine Hematology (2)

Routine Hematology

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Summary: Routine Hematology provides testing for CBC and differentials, urinalysis, routine coagulation, and body fluid cell counts and differentials.

The hematology section of the Department of Pathology at the Madigan Army Medical Center performs tests in routine hematology, coagulation, urinalysis, body fluid analysis, flow cytometry, and special stains for bone marrows, body fluids, and tissue. The hematology section comprised of 8 civilian medical technologists, and 8 military medical laboratory technicians.

The mission of the hematology section is to provide quality patient care through giving accurate results of all the tests performed in the hematology section. Continuous quality improvement is a major factor in the mission of the section. Important process are monitored and evaluated for opportunities to enhance the quality and timeliness of the patient care provided. Education, through training and mentoring, is strongly emphasized to fulfill the mission of the section. The dedicated professionals in the Hematology section offer quality and competence to serve patients at Madigan Army Medical Center.

A complete range of tests is available with high-tech automated equipment and procedures in all disciplines. Some of the main tests offered by Hematology sections are the following:

o Complete Blood Count (CBC)
o Reticulocyte Count
o Manual Differential
o Body Fluid Cell Counts and Morphology
o Urinalysis with Microscopic Exam
o Prothrombin Time (PT)
o Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT)
o Mixing Studies
o Fibrinogen
o Quantitative D-Dimer
o Fibrin Split products (FSP)
o Complete Semen Analysis
o Flow Cytometry – Lymphocyte subsets and panels
o G-6-PD
o Sickle Cell
o Hgb Electrophoresis
o Factor Assays
o Lupus Anticoagulant

The specimen containers in hematology section have lavender-top EDTA vacutainer which is properly filled and will be perfect for the CBC, ESR, and Reticulocyte count. The light blue-top sodium citrate tubes which are completely full, maximum draw will be enough for PPT, Fibrinogen, D-dimer, Fibrin split products, and mixing studies. All the tubes for the specimen must be properly filled and well-mixed to be acceptable. Dilution of blood by the appropriate anticoagulant is critical in order to get a precise result and all specimens which do not meet department standards for identification will be rejected.

Routine Hematology involves the following:

o Complete Blood Count (CBC) which consist of the following tests: WBC, RBC, HGB, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW, PLT, MPV, and automated differential which includes percentage and absolute number of cell types.
o A manual differential is performed only if designated laboratory criteria are met
o All peripheral smears are kept for one month
o Many tests are time dependent after collection. Routine Hematology tests that require testing in a specific time period are:
* ESR- within 8 hours of collection
* CBC- within 24 hours of collection
* Differntial- within 8 hours of collection
* PT/PTT- within 4 hours of collection
* Fibrinogen- within 4 hours of collection
* Urinalysis- within 2 hours of collection or refrigerate

Random Drug Testing in our Schools

Random Drug Testing in our Schools

2010 Mayor's Back To School Fair
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Drug use amongst young people is an increasing trend, yet the public perception of the suitability / effectiveness of random drugs testing at school is relatively uncertain.
Such testing takes place quite rarely in the UK, in spite of it being a more common practice in the USA.

The average starting age for heroin use in many cities in the UK is just 15, and a survey of over 20,000 UK school children showed that 9% of 13 year olds and over a quarter (27%) of 15 year olds had used an illegal drug at some point in their lives. So there is clearly a need for more assertive intervention at an early age.

Parents face the growing concern that their teenager may already be taking drugs, or that they are in an environment where they are exposed to those who will offer them drugs, especially Cannabis / Marijuana. The frightening reality is that this environment may be their school.

In order to learn more about drug use (and in particular Cannabis / Marijuana supply and young people), 182 young people who were Cannabis / Marijuana users aged between 11 and 19 were interviewed for a study published in January 2008 by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation. The sample included both city dwellers and young people from rural villages. Half of the young people had taken cannabis into school or college and 43 per cent said that they used cannabis whilst at school or college. It is clear from the report that the majority of these young people purchase cannabis from their friends or relatives and in turn supply their friends in a new wave of ‘social’ and ‘not-for-profit’ drug-taking which is a departure from the typical dealer-user scenario. One young interviewee told researchers that the people who sold her Cannabis / Marijuana included ‘friends from school’ and shows how combining drug-use with normal social networking is having the effect of normalising the act of taking drugs.

However, a recent study by Neil McKeganey, Professor of Drug Misuse Research at Glasgow University, demonstrates that random drug testing in schools is a more complex and controversial issue than one would at first imagine. Questions arise over matters including cost, ethical issues such as what would happen in the event that a pupil tested positive for drugs and what ‘punishment’ or deterrent would be appropriate, concerns that pupils may switch from easily detectable drugs to more harmful drugs in order to avoid detection, and the probability that a trusting relationship between staff and pupil would be damaged and encourage a culture of concealment. Furthermore, it is possible that enforcing random drug testing of pupils would conflict with the UN Charter on the Rights of the Child or the European Charter on Human Rights.

Whilst acknowledging the obvious need for drug prevention, it appears that further research and data collection is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of drug screening within schools.

In spite of this, results from an ICM Research poll which previously appeared in the News of the World on Sunday demonstrated that 82% of parents and 66% of children support drug testing in schools and of the 1,000 parents surveyed, 96% said they would want to know if their son or daughter was taking drugs.

So what can be done?

In the absence of a drug-testing programme at school or college, anxious parents, guardians or caregivers who have concerns about teenagers or young people using drugs are able to conduct a drug test in the privacy of the home. These home drug test kits are used daily by professionals in the healthcare industry and one test can provide easy to read results in minutes for a variety of different drugs. This includes the most common drugs, such as Cannabis / Marijuana, Cocaine, Amphetamines, Benzodiazepines, Opiates, Methadone and Methamphetamines (including ecstasy).

What Universities And Internet Marketing Have In Common

What Universities And Internet Marketing Have In Common

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Universities and internet marketing are designed to have the same exact outcome from everyone who enters. The main purpose of entering the university and the internet marketing game is to test people. Each one of them is a large and in the universities case expensive way of testing the individual who enters. Internet marketing is an endurance test and a test of hanging in with consistent work. The university is a test of the ability to quickly uncover and dissect information. Inside are the similarities between the two; and how you can use this view to help your internet marketing career.

Universities and internet marketing have the same basic principles, enroll and then pay to learn. In both cases you have to do some research into what your major realm you want to learn about. When beginning internet marketing you have to pick a product or company to join and in school you pick a major. You then have to pay, but when going to a University you have to pay thousands up front. Once you decide to market using the Internet you usually have to buy a few e-books and marketing guides. When joining a University you have to show up for class. The same goes marketing online. When marketing online you have to discover a pattern of positive activity. These daily activities result in learning and development that will create momentum in your marketing campaign. When in a university you have to set up your schedule of time that will be devoted to reading the material. Looking up words and terms you don’t know and interacting with classmates and study partners. Online marketing the time should be spent learning and sharing information in forums and chat rooms on marketing online. There are countless similarities between the two that I could explain on and on.

But here is the main point. That in both ways of life the work for someone else way or start your own business. You have to decide to enroll in and pay for a way to learn how to get a specific skill to launch you into your industry. Whether it is affiliate marketing or network marketing. The common theme is you have to treat your marketing campaign as if you are in a University. Imagine that you are paying your dies early and paying allot of money to become something. In your marketing campaign it is to become a guru so you can teach others how to market. You can then sell any type of product or business or company. You have to expect not to earn anything at first and just learn the process of marketing and getting into positive action patterns. To see a fool proof plan on how to market effectively online see my website.

Computer Training and IT Certifications

Computer Training and IT Certifications

In the competitive world of the internet, computer training is necessary to gain skills and knowledge in order to get the validation you need to be recognized as an expert IT professional confronting all those opportunities and career challenges that have never been greater than today.

An IT certification is a common a prerequisite to get a job or a salary increase, hence professional certifications are a necessity and not just a marketing strategy to sell determined software or useless courses. Both computer training and IT certification are the best way to demonstrate your skills and expertise in any given technical field to present to prospective employers.

Computer training is possible through formal education attending one of the many colleges or university offering both IT and computer science programs. There are many other institutes offering computer training online and computer based training products and courses for Web Development, Microsoft Office, and various Information Technology certifications among others.

Computer training online and computer based training products also offer online support from expert instructors, which make it easier to learn without even leaving the comfort of your home. From study guides, practice exams, to audio training, video training and online training. Computer training offers different requirements and levels of learning to focus on anyone’s demands.

On the other hand, IT Certifications not only lets you demonstrate undeniable expertise on diverse IT areas but also a document that credits your qualifications enhancing your curriculum vitae whether if getting a new job or engaging in a new system-wide deployment.

Furthermore, employers are more likely to hire job candidates with IT Certification credentials since it is a way to ensure that they are getting top qualified professionals with proven proficiency in their technology area.

For companies, this is as clear as water, certified professionals give them competitive advantage over other firms in the same field increasing customer satisfaction, reducing network downtime, and pushing their services to higher levels. A person with computer training and IT certification translates into an excellent return on their investment.

In the United States, some of the colleges and universities offering both computer training and IT certification are Berkeley College, University of Phoenix Online, Kaplan University, AIU Online, Capella University, Strayer University Online, Kennedy-Western University, DeVry University, Westwood College Online, just to name a few.

Some companies specialize in online certification, training and employee testing offer free tools online to measure your skills and determine if you need to achieve certain computer training skill or if an IT certification is required to develop your professional career.

Study Examines Use Of Wireless And Handhelds At Patients’ Bedside

Study Examines Use Of Wireless And Handhelds At Patients’ Bedside

2010 Mayor's Back To School Fair
Source: Flickr

(NC)-Researchers are investigating the use of wireless technology and handheld computers to bring quality information about treatment and diagnosis to physicians at the bedside and in the examining room. Earlier research found that when physicians are given the opportunity to request information at the bedside, they used it extensively and it made a difference in their delivery of healthcare by providing more accurate diagnosis and treatment information.
This project is one of many initiatives of the Bell University Laboratories, a unique collaborative research program, funded by Bell Canada, that encourages innovation through collaboration in the development of communications technology in Canada.
The project is studying what information hospital and community-based physicians need when they are administering care to patients. The investigators are also studying the ideal format for delivering the information on mobile computers and to determine if the use of handheld devices can improve patient care and prescribing procedures in clinical and hospital settings. For example, the technology would allow physicians using a mobile computer to access information about possible drug interaction when writing a prescription at a patient’s bedside.
“The bottom line for us is, what gets delivered to the physician is not just information, but information that we have determined to be the best that’s available,” said Dr. Lawrence Spero, laboratory manager at Bell University Health Communication Labs.
During the course of this study, a variety of wireless devices have been tested, including RIM Blackberry handhelds, as well as both the Palm Pilot and iPAQ computers. Testing will continue using other devices including the Xybernaut, a wearable computer that can boost a user’s productivity by almost an hour per day. Currently, the research is academic, so no patients have been involved with the devices. The researchers plan to move the study into a hospital setting within a year.

Online Bachelor Nursing Degree Consideration Guidelines

Online Bachelor Nursing Degree Consideration Guidelines

If you are a LPN (Licensed Practical Nurse) or RN (Registered Nurse), it's time for you to advance your career by earning a bachelor degree in nursing. Today, with so many nursing degrees offers through distance learning, now you can earn your bachelor nursing degree without the need to put your life on hold.

With so many nursing programs offers online, it sometime makes you feel difficult to choose one from among all the best. This article will outline the basic guidelines on how to consider an online nursing degree which will secure you for a brighter future. Get the answers to the following questions in order to make an informed decision:

1. Is the university accredited?

Although graduating from an accredited university does not guarantee jobs or licensure for individuals, it reflects the quality of the educational programs offer by the university. It speaks to a sense of public trust, as well as to professional quality. Thus, it is important to enroll to a university which is accredited by a recognized accreditation agency.

Regional accreditation is the highest level of accreditation a college or university can obtain and is recognized throughout the United States. Examples of regional accrediting bodies include the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools and the Middle States Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools.

2. Is the nursing school accredited?

Accreditation of a nursing school is a voluntary endeavor, but it ensures the quality and commitment of its educational program in the proper training of nurses. If you are planning to apply for any financial aid or you plan to advance your studies to a higher level in the future, an accredited nursing school is a factor to consider. Online nursing programs offered by an accredited nursing school will also increase your competitive edge in the job market because many employers prefer to hire practitioners with degrees from accredited institutions.

3. What are the lectures like?

Most university programs are purely reading and taking tests, but if you enroll into an online nursing degree program which can offer streaming video and audio lectures, along with textbooks, study guides and CDs; these visual learning material will definite help you to understand your courses better and faster.

4. Does proctored exams needed and can you take the test online? Some online nursing programs require you to take proctored exams at testing centers, which involves traveling to testing centers and paying fees. But there are universities which you can take your proctored exams and complete your assignment 100% online.

5. Do you need to attend physical classes?

Some nursing courses require you to attend a certain hours of physical classes at campus. But there are universities offer the courses fully online. It is good for you to ask and confirm with the university to avoid any crash with your working schedule. If attending a certain hours of physical classes is not possible for you, then 100% online classes may be your better option.

6. What are the fees over and above the tuition and textbooks?

Many institutions charge not only tuition costs but also a host of assorted fees that may include application, transcript evaluation, library privileges, graduation and more. Plus, tuition may seem low at first, but then they hit you with extra expenses when you matriculate.

7. How can I contact my professors and classmates?

A worthy University program will give you several options such as chat room, message board, email, MSN or the university may implement their own proprietary online learning system for contacting your professors and classmates.

8. What are the practice project requirements?

This is a very important question. Determine your obligations by asking the following:

  • Do I have to travel to another city? If so, for how long?
  • Are there additional travel costs, or is travel included in my tuition costs?
  • Can I select a preceptor I already know?
  • Can I fulfill the requirements with my own employer?
  • Are there additional fees?
  • How many hours are required?

In Summary
Pursuing an online bachelor nursing degree is your education investment for your career advancement, so you must make the right choice. Getting the answers for the above questions will help you to make your right decision and select an online nursing degree that meet your career goal.

Selecting A School – What To Take Into Consideration

Selecting A School – What To Take Into Consideration

Selecting a college has always been a very big decision for students evaluating their options. Today there are even more choices than ever and some dangers along the way. Not only are students faced with choices of the traditional classroom, but also the virtual campuses that have became a popular contender over the past several years. There are several factors involved in choosing the correct school and much of the decision is based on academic performance. For some lucky students that have achieved greatly the acceptance letters will be stacked up before they ever walk their high school graduation stage, but for the rest, they are faced with walking the tight rope of deciding which college.

College Entrance Testing

All colleges have guidelines for acceptance to the University and then many of the departments have other requirements. When applying to a university it is important to understand that most colleges require a college entrance examination such as the ACT or SAT with a passing score. Most require an essay detailing your goals and educational plans over the next couple of years. Considering the specific department that you are looking to enter into will determine the requirements of college entrance. Many departments such as the Nursing departments or Psychology department have strict guidelines requiring your entrance testing and previous GPA to tally to a certain level before you will be considered. That is the reason that it is highly important that you plan for the college entrance tests and study to prevent a declination letter. Choosing a college is not only about the entrance guidelines, but it can prevent you from entering if you have not scored well or performed poorly in high school.

Field of Knowledge

Having a basic idea of what career field that you want to study is another good way to determine which college is right for you. Not every college offers the type of degree that you may be looking for so it is important to research before applying. Most universities have websites that give a detailed list of degrees offered and the time line in which most students complete the program. If you are looking for a nursing program, you would want to make sure that the university that you are looking at offers a nursing program. Be careful with entering one college to get basics, believing that all the classes will transfer to the next university. In many cases, the credits will not transfer and then you are stuck with credits that are worthless.

Close to Home V.S. Distance

One of the biggest decisions for most students is whether to attend a local college or move away for a college education. Much of this decision is based on the financial resources that the student and/or parent have. Most parents advocate that their students remain close to home to defray living expenses. Other costs besides living arrangements that are sometimes pricey include out of state tuition. Another concern that students face when moving off to college is the lack of family support and contending with roommates in the dorm situation. College is stressful enough and can sometimes cause a lack of interest or study habits when faced with dorm mate problems. Of course, the cost of attendance is much less if the student remains in the parent’s home. Most colleges require that if the student is not within living distance of the parents that they live on campus for the first two years of attendance. Again depending on the financial situation this can prove costly.

Traditional V.S. Distance Education

There are positives and negatives to both the traditional and distance education options of a college education. Over the past several years, a rise in popularity of virtual classrooms has surfaced. There are two negative issues that must be considered when looking at an online university. First, the student must make absolutely certain that the university is regionally accredited. Most of these online universities will boast their accreditation, but students must verify that the accreditation is by the regional educational board. One quick way to find out if they are legitimately accredited is to see if they can offer Federal Financial Aid, not only loans by private financing companies. Secondly, distance education is more costly than the traditional classroom setting. It is anywhere between $1500 and $2500 per five semester credit hours. Now that does not compare with the prestigious universities tuition rates, but neither does the diploma at the end of the college career.

Again, research and ensure that you are making an informed decision. Sometimes you can obtain information through the Internet or your local high school counseling office when deciding which university to attend. Another huge downfall that must be considered when looking at online universities is the fact that the student must exhibit excellent study habits and self-discipline. There are no set times for classes or professors to answer to if you over sleep. This can cause some students to fall behind and actually cause their college career to be much more difficult.

Choosing a college should be a decision that is not made overnight. There are many issues to consider and students should really think it through. After all this decision will affect the rest of your life and career. Attending a good and reputable college can mean getting a great job!

CLEP— College Level Examination Program

CLEP— College Level Examination Program

The College Level Examination Program or CLEP is a system of testing people’s college level knowledge acquired through course work, independent study, cultural pursuits, travel, special interests, military service schools, and professional development.
The CLEP is comprised of a series of CLEP tests that are organized at testing centers on college and university campuses.

Over 2,900 colleges and universities accept CLEP General and Subject exams for credits. A CLEP test or exam helps the US students in high schools or universities to win credits for the successful completion of their respective courses for each academic term. A CLEP test covers the syllabus taught in courses that are taken by most students, as requirements in the first two years of college.

The CLEP tests may have different designs or patterns; some correspond to one-semester courses and some correspond to full-year or two-year courses. The pattern or design is usually given in a CLEP exam’s description. Generally, a CLEP test is intended to cover material in a one-semester course. A CLEP test is usually 90 minutes long, and except for English Composition with Essay, a CLEP test mostly includes multiple-choice questions or fill-ins.

The minimum score for awarding credit is recommended by the American Council on Education (ACE), but the standard of acceptable score and the amount of credit granted for each CLEP test is determined by the institutions concerned. Usually, a college or University grants the same amount of credit to students earning satisfactory scores on the CLEP test as it grants to students successfully completing that course.

The CLEP tests are managed by the College Board, a not-for-profit examination board in the United States. Founded in the 19th century, the College Board also manages standardized tests, such as the SAT, PSAT/NMSQT, CLEP, ACCUPLACER, and the subject-specific SAT Subject Tests and Advanced Placement tests.

The current fee for a CLEP test is $60 ($65, effective July 1, 2007); however the CLEP tests are free for Military personnel. The College Board brought in a computer-based version of the CLEP tests at national test centers at colleges and universities in July 2001. There are now over 1300 colleges and universities that administer the CLEP eCBT tests. On Feb 16 2004, DANTES up-front funding of the CLEP eCBT test fee for eligible military and civilian examinees at national test centers. However, DANTES does not fund the advance, non-refundable registration fee that is charged by national test centers to reserve a date and time for testing. The examinee is responsible for paying this fee that ranges from $15 to $25 per test.

How to Deal With College and University Exams

How to Deal With College and University Exams

College life can be a lot of fun but there are college and university exams that need to be taken. Unless you are the type of student who can sail through college and university exams with little or no effort, you’re going to have to spend time studying hard in order to pass them. The stressful situations that college exams bring can hold you back if you do not learn how to handle it in a health manner.

You obviously must study before taking your university exams and you should make an effort to review all of the material that was covered in classes thoroughly. Many students get so anxious and worked up that they actually make themselves sick with worry and stress and are unable to recall the information that they studied. Does this sound familiar? If so, you need to find a way to help you relax or you may very well find yourself failing courses.

The sooner you can start preparing for your college exams, the better chance you’ll have at scoring high marks. This may sound obvious, but with all the distractions that come along with college life, it can be easy to put off studying until the last minute. Doing this will cause a lot of unnecessary pressure and you’re not going to help yourself if you approach your college course preparation this way.

You also need to make sure that you have a study schedule laid out when you’re getting ready to take an exam. Lay out a schedule of the material you are going to study and follow the plan. Many college and university students don’t remember to build ample rest time into their study plan and end up being too tired to accomplish anything effectively. The best way to prepare for college testing is in short sessions so that you’re able to absorb all of the material.

Make sure you get enough sleep and eat properly. If you’re not healthy and alert you are going to find your exams much more difficult then they would’ve been if you had taken proper care of yourself.

At the end of the day, your college examinations are important but they aren’t worth making yourself sick over. If you find yourself becoming overly anxious about taking those college exams, consider getting in contact with a tutor who may be able to give you some additional help as needed.

Doctors Of Varied Sorts And The New Online Doctor Trend

Doctors Of Varied Sorts And The New Online Doctor Trend

Historically known as a person licensed to give out medicine and various treatments the word doctor is beginning to be used interchangeably in many other fields as well.
For example, with some quick online searching you can find all sorts of online doctors; everything from your traditional arthritis doctor and pc spyware doctors too. It seems you can almost find a doctor who has specialized into nearly every field imaginable.

Let’s look a bit further into doctors online. Without too much trouble you’ll find doctors and health professionals on the internet that you can ask health and medical questions. Their replies are meant to be educational in purpose and shouldn’t be considered personal medical care. Sometimes responses are answered via email, but most often answers are posted on a FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) page or a bulletin board type forum. This gives everyone the ability to search, view, and therefore, benefit from the information.

You’ll also find a few live question and answer chat sessions. If you can’t make the scheduled chat time, many of the sites will allow you to post your question ahead of time and return later to view the details of the chat and see if your question had been brought up and answered.

Let’s now define the word doctor. According to a doctor is:

1. A person, especially a physician, dentist, or veterinarian, trained in the healing arts and licensed to practice. 2. a. A person who has earned the highest academic degree awarded by a college or university in a specified discipline. b. A person awarded an honorary degree by a college or university. 3. Abbr. Dr. Used as a title and form of address for a person holding the degree of doctor. 4. Roman Catholic Church. An eminent theologian. 5. A practitioner of folk medicine or folk magic. 6. A rig or device contrived for remedying an emergency situation or for doing a special task. 7. Any of several brightly colored artificial flies used in fly fishing.

Acquiring a traditional doctor’s degree requires many years of preparation and devotion. People usually join the medical colleges at the age of 19 and graduate at the age of 25. Once they get through the exams the physicians ultimately start their career at age 28 or 29 years as they begin their internship of 3 years. With the internet now widely available people can now study online as well. But do extensive research and study their authenticity before admitting yourself to any online colleges.

There are different types of traditional doctors specializing in different fields. Here are just a few:

Chiropractor: One who is especially skilled in precise focus on bones, muscles and soft tissue alignment. They usually adopt the techniques of physical therapy, massage therapy to heal different skeletal injuries and muscular imbalances.

Dentist: The Dentist is well trained in diagnostic of oral cavity.

Gynecologists: A Gynecologist is a doctor who is engaged in treatments of women regarding their reproductive and hormonal problems.

Pediatricians: Pediatricians are doctors specializing to treat infants, children and teenagers.

Homeopath: These Doctors are trained in homeopathic medicine. They use the Homeopathic medicines for the remedies of different diseases. Homeopathic medicines have no side effects like the allopathic medicines.

Ophthalmologist: Experts in treating the eyes. They often work in combination with Optometrists.

Optometrist: Optometrists are skilled in testing the visual acuteness and fitting correct lenses to increase vision.

Cardiologist: Specialists who takes care of the heart and related diseases.

Psychiatrist: Psychiatrists are trained with special treatments on emotional disturbance patients.

Other types include skin specialists, orthopedics (bone), neurologist (nerve), eurologist (kidney), and the list goes on and on as

It seems definition 2. a. from above is beginning to be used more frequently to give people the impression that a certain person, product or service knows more than others about a particular topic. The computer industry is just one example. Software called PC Doctor or spyware doctor gives the impression that these programs will help fix the problem being experienced by the patient or customer really. A bit of a play on words for sure since even the definition points to an actual person rather than a product.

We hope this article has been educational and possibly a tad enlightening regarding the various types of doctors and the online doctors trend that has taken place with the internet.